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Pipe stem dating You have recovered sixty-three pipe stem fragments from Verysignificantsite. Harrington's initial studies, the time periods and average bore diameters are as follows (Deetz 19): Look at the number of stems you recovered and determine which bore diameter is represented by the most pipe stems.You wish to analyze these pipe stems to determine when your site was most heavily occupied. Match the most frequently occurring diameter with Harrington's bore diameter chart above.Historical archeologists do not rely on pipe stem fragments as the only source for determining a site's history.They also consider historical documents and other material culture recovered from the site—such as ceramics, glass, metal artifacts, faunal and botanical samples, and features—to determine its occupation and use.Later, pipes got larger, and the shape changed (Fig 2).

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Most of these locally-made clay pipes had a limited distribution within their area of manufacture but in the cases of port towns and overseas trading centres, some clay pipes were shipped to the North American colonies.The bowl is similar to an Oswald type 23 (Oswald, 1975, 37), which typically dates from c. The clay tobacco pipe has been moulded from a white pipeclay. The casting seem runs down the underside of the pipe and stem and is clearly visible.At the base of the bowl is a rounded spur, on this are stamped the makers initials T W, surrounded by a raised circular border. The pipe is a white grey colour, and measures 51.6mm in length, 8.9mm in width, 38.4mm in height, and 10.11g in weight. The clay tobacco pipe has been moulded from a white pipeclay.The pipe fragment consists of the bowl and spur and incomplete stem.

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